Monday, 5 January 2009

ETHNIC CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN


ETHNIC CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

Held on 8TH and15TH September, 2008




By

students of peace and conflict resolution

Department of Political Science

Bayero University, Kano

2007/2008 session




DIRECTOR

MALLAM M.M. YUSUF




2008












RECORDED


BY


HAMZA MARAFA

AND

NASIRU SULE























COMPILED


BY


HAMZA MARAFA

UMAR DANJUMA

NASIRU SULE

KABIRU SAI’DU DAKATA

NAFI’U MUHD

SHEHU HARUNA













TABLE OF CONTENTS



Director’s introductory speech--------------------------------------1

Chairman opening remarks-----------------------------------------1


Section one

The causes of ethnic conflicts in Northern Nigeria-------- 6 - 24


Section two

The solutions to ethnic conflicts in Northern Nigeria-- 25 – 34


Section three

Contributions from the participants--------------------- 35 – 37


Appendices


Report on the round-table discussion on ethnic conflict management in Northern Nigeria----------------------- 38 – 39

A communiqué issue at the end of the round-table discussion on ethnic management in Northern Nigeria------------ 40 – 41

Participants in the conference------------------------------- 42 - 44











SIMULATION OF ETHNIC CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGEIA



DIRECTOR’S INTRODUCTORY SPEECH

Today we are going to have a mock exercise on peace making. The aim of the mock conference is to show my student the techniques of peace and conflict resolution. It is an intellectual exercise anyway and a leadership training as mock delegates of various tribes and communities leaders, politicians, academicians, trade union and NGOs will come and tell us the causes and the solutions to the ethnic conflict in the Northern Nigeria. This is an annual event. Over the years many students came to watch the mock conference. So I will now handover to the chairman who the management of the conference should be on his hands.


CHAIRMAN’S OPENING REMARKS

Ladies and Gentlemen, I welcome you to this Round Table Conference on ethnic conflict management in Northern Nigeria. The conference has been designed to be a platform for managing ethnic conflict in this region, as we all know that ethnic conflict is the most fundamental threat to institutional stability, political order and national unity.


Although the 1999, constitution of federal republic of Nigeria guarantee every citizens the right to live, to work, and carry on legitimate business in any part of the country, there has been gross abrogation of this right by the ethnic-based conflicts and tension, to extend that today any systemic consideration of problems and prospects of development and democratic governance in Nigeria must come to terms with the challenges and dilemmas of ethnic-based tensions and conflicts.


Initially, the conflicts have been largely identity driven, they are ethnic in nature but with communal and religious dimensions. In all the ethnic conflict that erupt in Northern Nigeria there has been the use of phrases like “we” against ‘them’, “indigenes” versus “settlers”, and “Insiders” versus “outsiders” as well as the inclusion/exclusion of some citizens on the basis of being non-Indigene or belonging to other community or religion. The most annoying aspect is these have been continuously mobilized and deploy in the rivalry and violent struggle among ethnic nationalities. The underlying factors to these are the emotional power of the cultural ties, power and resources competition, electoral mobilization, elite manipulation, defective political institution and inequitable state policies. In fact, evidence have shown that the harsh policies of privatization, deregulation, commercialization and marketisation of the Nigerian economy had tended to reinforce the inherent complexity, ambiguity, volatility and fluidity of ethnic sentiments and prejudices, making the complains of domination and marginalization to grow louder and manifesting itself in struggle for self-determination, equality and justice among the ethnic nationalities of this region and the country in general.


The statistics for this are scaring from 1980-date there has been over 35 ethno-religious conflict in major Northern cities and towns:


  • Kano, in 1990, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1999, the conflict is between Hausa-Fulani and non-indigenes but with religious underpinnings.

  • Bauchi: the conflict of Tafawa Balewa was between Hausa and Sayawa. The conflicts were ethnic but communal underpinnings. It occurred in 1980, 1990, 1991, 1995, and 2002.

  • Kaduna has been another nub centre of ethnic conflict in this region. In Kafanchan, in 1996, 1998, 2006. Likewise in Zango Kataf violent ethno-religious conflict of 1992 was between Atyap and Hausa-Fulani on ethnic basis but with religious and communal dimensions.

  • In Plateau state, Jos is known as a peace town until the eruption of ethnic crises in the state: 1996, 2000-2002, Hausa and Birom in Jos, Bukur, Barikin Ladi, Hausa-Fulani, Bogos, Birom and Hausa Fulani in Mangu. With numerous others in Langtang, Pankshin, Wase and Yelwan Shendam areas.

  • In Benue, Taraba and Nassarawa states there has been conflict between Tiv and Jukun as well the Tiv and Hausa-Fulani.


These violent clashes have claimed thousands of lives, while properties worth billion of Naira were destroyed; many people have been relocated as well. Worst however, the unity of the region and the country in general as well as its very basics are being dangerously eroded.


Our task in this conference is to review the background to these conflicts, and in the process, attempt to X-ray the structure and manifestation of the conflicts with a view of managing it effectively.

So, the conference is organized around the following objectives:

  1. To investigate the major sources and features of ethnic conflict in Northern Nigeria today.

  2. To examine the nature, impact, strength and inadequacies of current public policies in mediating conflicts in the country.

  3. To explore and suggest alternative solutions on peaceful management of ethnic conflict in Nigeria


The First Round of the conference is to focus on the problems of ethnic conflict in Northern Nigeria. This will investigate the major sources and features of these conflicts. Whereas, the Second Round will search for solutions to these conflicts including the alternative strategies for managing ethnic conflict in Nigeria, the Third Round would receive contributions from the audience. And there will be a communiqué at the end of the conference.


With these, I wish to now formerly declare the conference open, and the procedure would be, first self-introduction by the delegates and then each will be invited to speak and discussion would follow.


Thank you.


















PART 1


CAUSES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA



MINORITY TRIBES USE ETHNIC CONFLICT AS A STRATEGIC END

Hamisu Idris,

Hausa Fulani Representative


Hausa Fulani is the major ethnic group in Northern Nigeria. They are the largest and live in every part of this country, carrying out businesses and other economic activities like farming and trading, thus serving as catalyst to economic development of the region and the country in general. Despite this, the most annoying aspect is that the Hausa Fulani are considered as settlers in many parts of the northern Nigeria. They are marginalized by one minority in the region owing to their economic status. Their lands are attracted and usurped by the minority tribes. The land crisis in Zango kataf, Tafawa Balewa and Jos affected Hausa Fulani in these areas. So the major cause of the ethnic conflict in the Northern Nigeria is other minority groups in the region chose not to respect the majority Hausa Fulani as they are always attacking the Hausa Fulani. Therefore the minority tribes in the North use ethnic conflict as a tool to achieve their selfish interest while pretending to be struggle for self determination. Thank you.

Chairman: I will now call upon the Atyap Ethnic representative to hear their side


MINORITY-MAJORITY RELATIONSHIP CAUSES ETHINC CONFLICT

Daifuru Kabiru

Atyap Ethnic Representative

Thank you Mr. Chairman, I will not hesitate to state this clearly that the root cause of the ethnic conflict in Northern Nigeria is that Hausa Fulani are using their superiority to dominate the minority ethnic groups. They connived with government and traditional rulers to embark upon Islamization and enforcing the Hausa culture on the Atyap. Therefore we see this as a threat, it is indeed dragging the Atyap’s tradition and culture into extinction.


Chairman: let me call upon another minority ethnic group to tell us his opinion, the Sayawa ethnic Representative.


GOVERNMENT PROMOTE ETHNIC CONFLICT

Umar Kabir

Sayawa Ethnic Representative

Let me start Mr. Chairman by drawing our attention to past if we are to understand the present as well as prepare for the future. The Sayawa agitation for self-rule started in the 1930s but attained much serious stage in 1948 when Baba Peter Gonto, Sarki Salmanu and some other Sayawa elders were arrested and sent to prison on account of a letter written by Mallam Foli asking for self-rule. In 1968 the Sayawa protest against the Ajiya family reached its climax when Brigadier Musa Usman (the then Governor of North Eastern State) removed Alh. Adamu Tafawa Balewa as the district head of Lere and in 1970 a Sayawa man Mallam Aliyu Wulumba Dadi was turbaned.


In 1976 Lere district was split into two Lere and Bogoro districts (with the creation of Bogoro district), the Sayawa district head (Mallam Haruna Yakubu then) was moved to Bogoro and the Ajiya family was again brought to Tafawa Balewa as the district head of Lere. This renewed the agitation.


Therefore the genesis of the conflict between Sayawa and non Sayawa hinges upon communal and chieftaincy tussles. The Hausa Fulani are attempting to usurp our land and the government is reluctant to take any measures despite the recommendations propounded for the solution of the ethnic conflict in the area.


Chairman: so far these conflicts seem to have communal or traditional inclination, so let me call the representative of traditional rulers to tell us their own side


TRADITIONAL INSTITUTIIONS ARE THE INSTRUMENTS OF PEACE

Sani Isma’il

Traditional Rulers’ Representative


Traditional rulers are after justice and equity among our subject. That we have fought and lost the live of our brothers and their properties to ensure the law and order, to ensure security, peace and tranquility in our various kingdom. Moreover we hold long history of cooperation with the government since the colonial rule. But, today the traditional rulers and their traditional institutions only function as advisory bodies to the elected representatives of the people. I may say in confidence that lack of respects of traditional rulers as well as full recognition in the power equation of this country is one of contributing factor to the ethnic conflicts.

Chairman: now one of the nagging problems in this region is the conflict between the Tiv and Jukun, so let me invite the Tiv ethnic representative to tell us why is that so?


NATIONALIZATION IS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF THE CONFLICT

Umar Danjuma

Tiv Ethnic Representative


Mr. Chairman, I stand before you as a true Tiv, to tell the minds of Tiv on the causes of ethnic conflict in northern Nigeria. Nationalization is a causative agent of our conflict with the Jukun. At Kwararafa and Wukari the occupation of farming lands at Wukari was confiscated from the Tiv. The Tiv are disenfranchised from electoral process hence from governance process. This shows that the Jukun are the one attacking our people. And this is the major cause of the conflicts.


Chairman: Mr. Tiv let me refresh your memory that Tiv were not only attacking the Jukuns during the crises but also the Hausa Fulani in their way to South. Nevertheless let me invite…


Tiv Ethnic Representative: Mr. Chairman that is because they collided with the Jukun to attack my people and….


Chairman: don’t mind Mr. Tiv, I would like to now call upon the Mangu ethnic representative to say his opinion.


MAGINALISATION IS MAIN SOURCE OF ETHINC CONFLICT

Saleh Abubakar Muhd

Mangu ethnic representative

Mr. Chairman my people are labeled as “minority” for nothing but ethnic prejudice. The Mangu ethnic groups were maltreated and unduly disadvantaged. This is despite the fact that nature blessed Mangu community with a lot of natural resources. Our lands are very fertile and we feed almost 55% of plateau state. On this note, we would not allow others to confiscate our lands. And with these I can say that marginalization of minority ethnic groups by the majority groups is the main source of ethnic conflict in Northern Nigeria.



Chairman: I will now call upon the Birom ethnic representative


THE CONTESTATION OF SETTLERS AND RESIDENTS PRODUCES ETHNIC CONFLICT

Aminu Saleh Isyak

Birom Ethnic Representative


Mr. Chairman, ethnic conflicts in Nigeria is not a new phenomenon; this is because since the late 1980s and early 1990s we have experienced the resurgence of ethnic conflicts across the nation, which culminated into catastrophic consequences. Such as murder, massacre and genocide as well as lost of properties.

Mr. Chairman Birom is one of the ethnic groups in Nigeria that has been affected by ethnic conflict. Birom constituted largest single majority in Plateau state spread across Barkin Ladi, Riyamu, Bukuru (Jos south). Invariably the Birom population in Jos cannot claims majority because of the existence of other ethnic groups in the area such as Afizare, Anaguta and indeed the Hausa/Fulani whom are far greater than Birom in terms of population size.

It is important to note that, the genesis of ethnic conflict in Jos is centered on the issue of resident and settlers; this is because Hausa/Fulani are claiming that Jos Township is their own social formation giving the fact that they first settled when the land was just above land. On the other hand, Birom also claim that they are the resident of the area initially. This contestations produces some kind of feeling of marginalization and political discrimination as well as social segregation on the part of Birom and other minority ethnic groups which are not Hausa/Fulani, this led to the eruption of ethnic conflict on 7th September, 2001 which metamorphose into religious conflict between Hausa/Fulani, Birom and other minority ethnic groups.


Chairman: let me now call another ethnic minority from plateau state, the Bogos Ethnic Representative


DEPRIVATION OF THE MINORITY RIGHTS IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF ETHNIC CONFLICTS IN THE NORTHERN NIGERIA

Hadiza Bilyaminu

Bogos Ethnic Representative


The Bogos are very peaceful but we are under attacks and sabotage by our neighbors the Birom. More so we consider the Hausa Fulani as settlers because they have taken away our pride: farming by occupying our land. Indeed Hausa Fulani are economically overpowering the Bogos thus causing conflict. Moreover the Bogos have very rich cultural heritage that will attracts foreign tourists but because the Birom and Hausa Fulani’s domination and marginalization no one knows about the Bogos traditional values and culture. To worsen the matters we are not recognized even in the political equation of our state talkless of this region and the country in general. Therefore Mr. Chairman, I will now state this clearly that deprivation of the minority rights is the major cause of ethnic conflicts in the Northern Nigeria



Chairman: ethnic conflicts in this region have religious inclinations, so let me call the representative of religious interest groups to tell us the causes of ethnic conflict from the religious perspectives.


ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY ABHORS ETHNIC SENTIMENTS

Kabiru Sa’idu Dakata

Representative of religious interest groups


Assalumu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi ta’ala Wa barakatuhu,

Mr. Chairman almost all the conflict that occurred in this country have religious dimension. But it is important to note that most conflicts are not religious, the politicians and in some cases traditional rulers use religion as tool to achieve their selfish interest. And where are the religious conflict erupts you may find that the root cause of the conflicts lies in the abuse of holy prophets and scriptures. And when we consider the religious injections of Islam and Christianity, conflicts on ethnic basis would not have erupt. As Islam speak in the Hadith of prophet Muhammad (SAW), that “ latata manna’ul liqiqal aduwwu, fa’iza laqituhum tasbitu” meaning you should not wish to be in physical combat with unbelievers, it only if they attempt to attack you that you would strike back. This is to say that Muslims abhors conflicts. More so Islam decreed that every Muslim irrespective of race, language culture or gender is brother of another Muslims, likewise in Christianity.



Chairman: now let me invite the Business community Representative



INADEQUATE BUSINEESS OPPORTUNITIES CAUSES ETHNIC CONFLICT

Adamu Isma’il

Business community Representative

Unemployment is the major cause of ethnic conflict in Northern Nigeria. The unemployed lack the local productive capacity to create business and other economic opportunities. So they are always used by the elites of ethnic groups to cause havoc so as to achieve their economic and political interests. The destruction of goods and services in Kano, Kaduna, jos and other towns and cities always cause artificial scarcity of resources which increases inflation and poverty as many people loses their capital. Hence the affected people missed their commercial potential and this leads to market failure in our community. Without any doubt inadequate business opportunities are major causes of ethnic conflicts in Northern Nigeria.


Chairman: university is a citadel of knowledge, so lets hear the causes of the ethnic conflict from representative of university academics




ETHNIC CONFLICT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA IS A PRODUCT OF POVERTY

Zainul Abideen Jibrin

Representative of university academics


Mr. Chairman I would like to draw our attention to numerous researches on ethnic conflict not only in Nigeria but globally. These researches have proved beyond doubt that there are:

  1. Structural causes of economic and political marginalization.

  2. Psycho-cultural causes from systemic and individual differences.


From the above, experiences have also shown that the cause of ethnic conflict in Northern Nigeria is enforced by poverty. And it is this poverty that causes economic and political marginalization which leads to needs deprivation. Consequent on this is ethnic sentiment and prejudices. Therefore in theoretical justifications John Burrton’s needs deprivation becomes a correct theoretical assumption.


Chairman: students are full of ideas, so let hear their idea on the causes of ethnic conflict from the Student union representative.



DISUNITY BREEDS ETHNIC CONFLICT

Aliyu Zubairu

Student union representative


Students Union comprises individuals from various ethnic nationalities as well as different religious background. This gives us the opportunity of understanding the nature of this multilingual and multicultural society called Nigeria. Our orientation is natural unity, and objectively therefore, ethnic conflict in this region is drag by disunity. And disunity breeds sentiment and hatred among the Nigerian nationalities. In other words, disunity breeds ethnic conflict. Furthermore, religion and nepotism on the other hand plays major role in spreading ethnic conflict in this region.



Chairman: women and their children are the most affected class during and after conflicts, so let me call upon the representative of the National Council of women Society to tell us more


CONSTRAINTS ON WOMEN TO PARTICIPATE IN THE POLITICS FACILITATE ETHNIC CONFLICT

Aisha Bello

National Council of women Society representative


Ethnic conflict is a crime against humanity. This is because the violence that follows such conflict causes much loss of lives of women, children and aged people. Indeed in some part of Africa it leads to genocide. The domestic violence affects teenage marriage, urbanization and industrialization. The major cause of this conflict is deprivation of right especially on the part of women. Women are deprived socially, economically and politically. However, women have great potential for reducing ethnic conflict but their voices are not heard. The husbands are silencing their wives using traditional and religious doctrinations. To worsen matters, today women are mostly uneducated and economically disadvantaged and this increase pressure on their husband to cater for their needs. Their children are living in land of misery and diseases. This is why in some ethnic clashes in Benue and plateau states women participated actively. Both women and men are lacking adequate awareness on cultural and traditional diversities as well as religious differences. And this creates misunderstanding.


Chairman: I would like to call on the representative of Nigerian bar association to tell us what the law says on conflict.


ABUSE OF LAW CAUSES ETHINC CONFLCIT

Musbahu Muhd

Nigerian bar association


All these crisis whether ethnic, religious or communal are abuses of law. Men must respect one another with regards to constitution which embodies various laws for ethnic groups to live together in peace. Let me state clearly that the root cause of ethnic conflict is the gross abuse of law. This is ignorance of law which is not an excuse to abuse law

Thank you.


Chairman: Politicians are always label as traders of conflict in our societies; let me call the PDP representative to hear their side.


POLITICKING PROMOTE ETHINC CONFLICTS

Isma’il Galadima

The PDP representative


Mr. Chairman I would like to start by quoting Peter U. Harris, politics is about the public issues as a result of election. The elite use politicking to gain power, and this breeds a lot of sentiments. Indeed as a result of politicking to gain power since 1999 to date dozens of the ethno-political crises has been reported that claimed hundreds of lives and lost of millions of properties. Thus we can say that these ethnic conflicts are political or election-oriented. Moreover one might say that one ethnic group: Hausa Fulani t has monopolized the political power in the region while marginalizing the rest of minorities. That this cause hatred and eventually conflicts.



Chairman: I would like to call upon ANPP Representative to tell us more.



PREBENDAL POLITICS AND RELIGIOUS CHAUVINISM ARE CATALYST TO ETHNIC CONFLICTS

Yakubu Ogah

ANNP Representative


From a political point of view, the contestations between the ethnic groups reflect a politics of do or die affair. The tribalistic nature of political parties and prebendal politics vis-à-vis religious factors contribute to the escalation of ethnic conflict in Nigeria. Beside this, poverty is another cause of the conflicts.


Chairman: now I would like to invite the NLC representative


SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE BRING CONFLICT

Comrade Jamilu Haladu

NLC Representative


Interest aggregation and articulation always ensure that the diverse interests of various ethnic nationalities are taken into consideration. The interest reflects the demand and aspirations which have great impact on peaceful coexistence among different ethnic nationalities. Today the systemic imbalances that bewitch the country have left the diverse interests of ethnic groups unchecked. This has been the major source of the ethnic conflict in this country. NLC for long time has been struggling to ensure that the government serves the demand of the masses. Indeed we protest, we demonstrate, and we lobby just to ensure that government policies reflect the interest of the worker, and the masses.


Chairman: almost all the presenters blame government in one way or the other, now let me ask the State representative what are the causes of ethnic conflicts.


DISLOYALTY TO THE STATE ENDANGER PEACE AND UNITY

Jamilu Muhd

State representative

The state recognizes all ethnic groups as one and the same. These nationalities irrespective of their geographical location, culture and traditional, religion and gender have the right to live, work, security and have descent shelter among other basic necessities. Moreover as far as the constitution is concerned all ethnic nationalities must have equal access to power and resources at national level. They are also equal in the eye of law. Thus ethnic conflict emerged out of disloyalty to the state. As if we are loyal to the state we can not allow the cultural ties to endanger the peace and unity of the country which we pledges to defend and promote peace and unity of the country each time we recite the national pledge and national anthem.

Thank you.


Chairman: the international community is seeing Nigeria as a volatile as a result of frequent ethnic clashes, let hears from an international Observer what are the causes.



ECONOMIC CLOSURE CAUSE POVERTY AND CONFLICTS

Sa’adatu Tahir

International Observer


Thank you Mr. Chairman, let me start by saying that the cyclical tendency of ethnic conflict is that it may spawn everywhere. And that the major cause of ethnic conflict in Nigeria is the country’s failure to fully liberalize her economy. The economic base of the country is remain highly undiversified. Indeed the economy is not fully open to foreign direct investments that lead to rapid economic growth. Nigerian must open up her economy to receive the opportunities and benefits of globalisation. It should learn from Asian Tigers if not newly industrialize developing countries.


Mr. chairman, our experience through the World Bank and IMF economic diagnosis have proved that liberalization of the economy raises infant industries to giants ones, the privatisation and commercialization of the state owned enterprise stabilize the economy. Indeed the marketisation of the whole economy is indispensable to sound economy that ensures sustainable development which eliminates poverty that causes conflict.



CHAIRMAN’S CLOSING REMARKS

Thank you very much ladies and gentlemen. I think the causes of the ethnic conflict have all been discussed. They range from the, ethnic minority issues, disunity, and disloyalty to the state, elite influence to religious superiority. And with these we have come to the end of the first round of this Round-Table discussion on ethnic management in Northern Nigeria.



















PART 2

SOLUTION TO THE ETHNIC CONFLICT

IN NORTHERN NIGERIA


Hausa Fulani Representative

Hamisu Idris


Mr. Chairman for peaceful coexistence to be prevalent in this region there must full recognition of Hausa Fulani wherever they are. They must be given equal treatment concerning land allocation and political participation. Also in the compensation of damaged properties, education as well as civil rights must all be entrenched for Hausa Fulani. The traditional institutions must be given to Hausa Fulani as they are the heirs of traditional kingdom and are majority in the region. The most important aspect is that the distribution of state’s resources and benefits should be based solely on population basis.


SAYAWA REPRESENTATIVE

Umar Kabir


Let me start by vividly stating that harmony and self rule must be induced to any tribal group. Even through Hausa Fulani is the majority they have to understand that they have problem of identity between Hausa and Fulani. Nigeria is a country design by God. And no one chooses where to come from. Constitutional provision gives right to every ethnic group to rule itself. The Sayawa have archaeological proofs that Tafawa Balewa is their land. The local government must be given to Sayawa. I also offer the following recommendations:

  1. Man is born free and for a purpose. It is as a result of this that we recommend that chapter IV of the 1999 constitution should be amended to vest rights on every nationality to rule themselves in their own domain.

  2. A system of teamwork should be evolve at the local government level, so as to ensure that the various nationalities or tribes in the local government have a representative.

  3. The division of electoral ward should as much as possible be designed to allow each tribe to be properly represented in the local government council.

Thank you.


ATYAP REPRESENTATIVE

Daifuru Kabiru


The only solution to the conflict between We Atyap and the Hausa Fulani is when our belongings are return to us. We what our land back, the lands confiscated by Hausas and we want political and economic recognition in our land. We want self-sufficiency and self-determination.


TIV REPRESENTATIVE

Umar Danjuma


The TIV must be given recognition in Jukun areas, and setter- native syndrome must be discarded. The political rights or franchise is deprived to the TIV who have rights to chieftaincy. On the economic domination and government must interfere to ensure equal distribution of resources and land ownership of 1976 law must be respected for equal share among Jukun and Tiv.

Thank you


JUKUN REPRESENTATIVE

Shehu Haruna


The Jukun’s have been under marginalization in their own native land. Marginalization in term of resources allocation among other benefits. Therefore resources allocation must be systematically allocated through traditional institutions to ethnic minorities. The federal government must allow Jukun to engage in the political process. The policy creation of unity in diversity to foster national progress. The federal character rights must be given to Jukun to offer their contributions. Majority and minority ethnics groups must be allowed to practices their own religion. Government and traditional institutions must respect the values of othrt ethnic groups. The equal opportunity for education, justice and rights of formal expression for addressing grievances and formula for equal representation in the federal government must all be given to all ethnic groups. Lastly, national feeling must be promoted.


BOGUS REPRESENTATIVE

Hadiza Bilyaminu


Government must divide equally the federal share among ethnic groups and intermarriage among various ethnic nationalities will help to solve ethnic crises.

Thank you.


MANGU REPRESENTATIVE

Saleh Jigawa


Mr. Chairman to solve the problem of ethnic conflict, the federal government must issue decree on land ownership to eliminate conflict among ethnicities. Public service must be for all tribes not merely for few others. Indeed it must be based on nationality.




BIROM REPRESENTATIVE

Aminu Saleh Isyak


Mr. Chairman, it is important to note that, ethnic conflicts cannot totally be eliminated, but at any rate it has to be minimize, therefore, the followings recommendations has to be taking into considerations:


  • The issue of citizenship has to be reshaped in Nigerian content

  • Employment opportunities have to be provided among the unproductive youth.

  • Traditional rulers have to inculcate the feeling of living together among their various ethnic groups.

  • Each ethnic group has to identify and respects the values, norms, culture and tradition of each other.

  • Equal representation in political process in Nigeria.

  • Equitable distribution of economic resources by Nigerian government has to be address.



RELIGIOUS INTEREST GROUPS

Kabiru Sa’idu Dakata


The solution lies on leaders and followers of religion. The leaders must practice what they preached and adequate information must prevail. Tracing the root to conflict is important especially the cases of abuse of holy prophets and scriptures.

Thank you.


Chairman: Are there any religious provitions on the solutions of ethnic conflicts


Religious Interest Groups: of course there are, but… em


Chairman: It seems like the secretary of the conference want help you on that.

Secretary: Concerning the Solution to ethnic conflict from the Islamic perspective, the holy Qur’an says:


“O mankind (all races of people) surely we created you from a single (Pair) of a male and a female. And made you into nations (Nigerians, English, Tanzanians, and Americans) and ethnic groups (Atayabs, Hausa, Birom, Sayawas) that you may know and (recognize) each other (by interaction). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is he the most righteous of you all….”


(Holy Qur’an, chapter 49 verse 13)


The holy Bible also speaks in related matters;


“When Jesus was attacked in Gethsemane at Thursday night by Roman soldiers armed with swords and clubs sent from the Chief Priests and elders of the people, Statement. Peter, his disciple reached for his sword, drew it out and struck Malchus the servant of the high Priest, cutting off his right ear lobe”. “Put your sword back in its place, Jesus said to him, for all who draw the sword will die by the sword (Peace is worth than a combat)”

(Matthew chapter 26 verse 52. New Testament)


“Blessed are the Peace makers”

Matthew 5:9 New Testament

“If someone strikes you on one right cheek, turn to him

the other also” Matthew 5:39 New Testament.


“Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his

Blood be shed. Genesis 9:6 Old Testament.


“For if you do forgive men when they sin against you,

our heavenly father will also forgive you. But if you do

not forgive men their sins, your father will not forgive

you sins”. Matthew 6:14,15 new Testament.


Chairman: Thank you very much secretary.


PDP REPRESENTATIVE

Isma’il Galadima


Mr. Chairman if ethnic conflict is to be drive out of this country, then our leaders have great role to play. Indeed Our leaders must remove bias and sentiment and respect one another. Politicians must stop ethicizing politics. There must be exogamy between ethnic groups. But the most important is free and fair election will drive conflict away. So let try to ensure free and fair election in the national, state and local government elections


ANPP REPRESENTATIVE

Yakubu Ogah


Mr. Chairman the major cause to these conflicts as I have pointed out in first Round of this conference is poverty. Therefore poverty must reduce if not eliminated. Moreover Imbalance of economic resources distribution must be checked with self-autonomy. Prebedal politics and religious chauvinism has to be checked by stakeholders.

Thank you.




BUSINESS COMMUNITY

Adamu Isma’il


The solutions to ethnic conflict in this country lies in maintenance of infrastructures and social amenities, as well as women empowerment to enable people have good standard of life, as well as education and health facilities for secure living.


UNIVERSITY ACADEMICS

Zainul Abideen Jibrin


Mr. Chairman, by injecting knowledge and expertise the psychological barriers must be removed. The hatred and spite must also be removed through media enlightenment, cooperative and economic activity. Education will promote compromise and justice will ensure equality as integral components and criminals must be brought to justice.


STUDENTS UNION

Aliyu Zubairu

Fairness and justice, women have responsibilities as well as all students in their academic make up. Therefore Fairness and justice are key to solving these conflicts



N.L.C

Comrade Jamilu Haladu


To avoid occurrence of future violence, I recommend peaceful coexistence of Nigerian. Justice must be exacted and forgiveness and forgetfulness is good to make Nigeria great.


BAR ASSOCIATION

Musbahu Muhd


All people must respect the constitution and law. Courts interpret laws. All criminals must be sacked especially the politicians who engage in violet actions promoting suicide. Law provides justice and let everyone have willingness to submit to law.


WOMEN SOCIETY

Aisha Bello


Mr. Chairman the solution to ethnic conflicts lies in the adequate enlightenment of women. This will accelerate the participation in political and economic activities. Mr. Chairman the most important aspect is that women need to be given free education. Above all for peace to reign there has to be massive women empowerment.

Thank you.


INTERNATIONAL OBSERVER

Sa’adatu Tahir


Mr. Chairman experiences have shown that programs and policy of economic advancement are solutions to ethnic conflict. But it is important to note that without conflict there is no way we can develop. The only way is to minimize ethnic conflicts in this region. Therefore the only solution to ethnic conflict not only in Nigeria but in all developing countries is to allow unrestricted market to penetrate every corner of our societies. This will discipline government, regulate and cut wasteful spending and allow people to hold their own destinies.


STATE REPRESENTATIVE

Jamilu Muhd


Mr. Chairman let me start by confirming that the government will investigate and listen to individual solutions to develop our resources. Specifically I mean the state without doubt will implement the recommendations offered in this conference. But I must emphasize that ethnic groups must live in peace without discrimination. All ethnic nationalities must respect the dignity and uphold the glory of the state. They must all contribute toward the National project. They must ensure free and democratic federal Nigeria as envisioned by the founding fathers and as embodied in the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria. With the sense of humanity among ethnic groups by good effort of this administration the conflicts would be solved. Therefore, the ethnic groups should allow peace to reign and democracy to thrive so as to set the infrastructures for the sustainable development.

















PART III

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE PARTICIPANTS


SALISU INUSA HASSAN

Mr. Chairman it is worthy of us to understand that Birom, is a major tribe in plateau state, and Mangu is a local government that comprises many ethnic groups. There e Birom exist alongside Ragulere, ushere, ajula tribes in Plateau. Being in complex society, the socio- economic and religious difference owing to elite’s manipulation of masses causes discrimination of native and settlers citizenship. There must be peaceful coexistence among the diverse nationalities if we to develop.


AHMED RUFAI

Mr. chairman, your committee or let me say the state must take measures of disarming the ethnic groups to avoid the re-break of conflict. The education on peace and conflict resolution must be part of our school curriculum.


ANAS UMAR

There has to be Control of tribalism, religion as well as control of criminal activities at natural level. Motivational incentives need to be applied in solving ethnic conflicts. Also traditional leaders must ensure fairness, and oneness among ethnic groups under them. The sense of minority and majority must be stopped and exogamy must prevail.


SA'IDU KASIM IMAM

Mr. Chairman, the organization, leadership and delegations and the proceedings of the conference are quite impressive and commendable. From the religious point of view sincerity and tolerance is very important. The rule of law must prevail and that peace should reign, every Nigeria indigene settled in any place can be pen franchised and disenfranchised. The political elites must stop being sentimental by instigating people to tension and violence. The creation of local government is development on non-ethnic base. The remedy to poverty is also favorable.


AUWAL ABUBAKAR

I feel the constitution is not the solution. The government of federation should embark on socio- economic activities to eliminate poverty to maximize peace. Poverty is detrimental to every aspect and effort of development.


LABARAN ADAMU

Ethnic conflict is a product of colonial rule, the composition of Nigeria federalism, federal character and other colonial actions all help in imposing it. We must solve the problem of Nigerian federalism first, if we want to do away with ethnic prejudices.




MOHD GAMBO SALEH

“We are very good but funny for not being serious, conscience is an open wound why truth can heal it”( Usman Bin Fodio).

To start with, the Tiv-Jukun and Sayawa people live in peace they are there by the will of God and they should not be alienated from their natural habitation. They contributed immensely to national development. They should be given right to their chieftaincy and being amidst Muslims must be given their. The request is that this commitment should actualize all recommendations made.


SALEH ABUBAKAR MOHD

For ethnic conflict to become a history peace must reign.


SHEHU HARUNA

Post conflict process to conflict prevention and peace building. Peace brokers must exert to make the situation stable.


CHAIRMAN’S CLOSING REMARKS

Ladies and Gentlemen, these deliberations had come to an end. It shows quite clearly that Northerners know our own worries e, and that we also know in our way how to go about dealing with them. Finally, there will be a communiqué that has deeply reflected the discussion that has taken place.

Thank you very much.

APPENDICES


APPENDIX I



REPORT ON THE ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION ON ETHNIC CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA BY STUDENTS OF PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

2007/2008


The simulation of peace and conflict resolution is one of the class work demonstration of the course ‘peace and conflict resolution’ under the guidance and supervision of the course lecturer Mallam M. M. Yusuf. The 2007/2008 session of the peace making was a Round Table discussion titled ETHNIC CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA. It is a theatric demonstration of peace making with particular emphasis on Northern Nigeria. The conference was chaired by Hamza Marafa, and the secretary of the conference was Nasiru Sule. It was inaugurated by self introduction of the delegates and representatives of various ethnic, religious and other interest groups.

The discussion was a modest contribution toward the peaceful coexistence between and among various ethnic groups in the region. The Round Table bought together the representatives of various ethnic groups, civil society organisations, religious interest groups, the state and international observers (see Appendix IX for the names of the participants).


The Round-Table discussion was spreads into three sections. The First Round of the conference discussed the problems of ethnic conflict in Northern Nigeria. The second Round discuss and analysed solutions to the ethnic conflict in while the Third Round received contributions from the audience. During the final session the chairman announced that a draft communiqué was going to be read and that participants should listen attentively so that issues that might have been omitted or misrepresented in the communiqué could be corrected. The chairman of the communiqué committee, Nafi’u Muhd read the draft communiqué (see appendix II for the Communiqué). Finally the chairman thanks the participants for making the conference successful.









APPENDIX II


A COMMUNIQUE ISSUE AT THE END OF THE ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION ON ETHNIC MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA


The objectives of this conference were:


  1. To investigate the major sources and features of ethnic conflict in Northern Nigeria today.

  2. To examine the nature, impact, strength and inadequacies of current public policies in mediating conflicts in the country.

  3. To explore and suggest alternative solutions on peaceful management of ethnic conflict in Nigeria


Particularly at this Round-Table discussion the participants observed that the major causes of ethnic conflicts are:

  1. marginalization, domination and maltreatment of minority ethnic groups

  2. problems of settlers and residents

  3. economic disadvantages of minority ethnic groups


The Round-Table also observed that:

  1. poverty and social deprivation

  2. political participation, segregation and

  3. Prebendal politics

  4. Religious chauvinism

  5. lack of constitutional awareness

  6. Abuse of law

  7. Inequality of state policies


In view of the above observation, the Round-Table discussion made the following recommendations:


  1. political recognition of the minorities

  2. Equitable way of resource distribution

  3. Equal opportunity in the political participation

  4. Review the federal character principle

  5. Respect the constitution as well as the rule of law

  6. Respect each others religion

  7. Improve the social welfare of Nigerians

  8. Disarmament of armed militants of the various ethnic groups

  9. Empower the women

  10. Public enlightenment on the need to live in peace and harmony



Nafi’u Muhd

Chairman, communiqué committee


APPENDIX III


PARTICIPANTS IN THE CONFERENCE


Chairman - Hamza Marafa

Secretary – Nasiru Sule



REPRESENTATIVES OF ETHNIC GROUPS

  1. Hausa Fulani – Hamisu Idris

  2. Atyap – Daifuru Kabiru

  3. Sayawa – Umar Kabir

  4. TIV – Umar Danjuma

  5. Jukun – Shehu Haruna

  6. Birom – Aminu Saleh

  7. Mangu – Saleh Jigawa

  8. Bogos - Hadiza Bilyaminu



REPRESENTATIVE OF CIVIL SOCIETIES

  1. University Academic - Zainul Abideen Jibrin

  2. Bar Association - Musbahu Muhd

  3. Business Community - Aliyu Zubairu

  4. Nat. Council of women Society – Aisha Bello

  5. N.L.C – Jamilu Haladu


POLITICAL PARTIES

1. PDP - Isma’il Galadima

2. ANPP – Yakubu Ogah


REPRESENTATIVE OF STATE

  1. Jamilu Muhd

  2. Habibu Sani

  3. Tasi’u Magaji


RELIGIOUS INTEREST GROUPS

  1. Kabiru Sa’idu Dakata


REPRESENTATIVE OF TRADITIONAL RULERS

  1. Sani Isma’il


INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS

  1. Sa'adatu Tahir

  2. Faisal


COMMUNIQUÉ COMMITTEE

  1. Nafi’u Muhd

  2. Salamatu Yakubu

  3. Bilkisu Isa Abdullahi



PARTICIPANTS

Ahmed Rufai

Anas Umar

Sa'idu Kasim Imam

Auwal Abubakar

Labaran Adamu

Mohd Gambo Saleh


GUESTS

  1. Salisu Inuwa Hassan

  2. Inusa Rabilu Abdu

  3. Faruk Musa Sani

  4. Murtala Garba Muhd

  5. Aminu Salisu





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